Grassy Weed Seed Head Identification

ILGM

Buy Cannabis Seeds Online

Grassy weeds are true grasses or monocots. A grass seed germinates and emerges as one single leaf. It develops hollow, rounded stems and nodes (joints)… Need to know whether you have crabgrass, chamberbitter, or common lespedeza? Our weed identification guide also tells you which herbicide… Use these photos and descriptions to identify weeds in your lawn and garden.

Grassy Weeds

Grassy weeds are true grasses or monocots. A grass seed germinates and emerges as one single leaf. It develops hollow, rounded stems and nodes (joints) that are closed and hard. The leaf blades alternate on each side of the stem, are much longer than they are wide and have parallel veins.

A weed’s life cycle has great impact on the selection and success of a given control procedure, so it is important to learn the life cycle characteristics of a weed when you first learn its identity.

Annual weeds germinate from seeds, grow, flower, produce seeds and die in 12 months or less. Annual weeds are further categorized by the season in which they germinate and flourish. Winter annuals sprout in the fall, thrive during the winter and die in late spring or early summer. Summer or warm-season grasses such as crabgrass and goosegrass sprout in the spring and thrive in summer and early fall.

Perennial weeds are weeds that live more than two years. They reproduce from vegetative (non-seed) parts such as tubers, bulbs, rhizomes (underground stems) or stolons (above-ground stems), although some also produce seed. Perennial weeds are the most difficult to control because of their great reproductive potential and persistence.

Proper identification of weeds targeted for control is necessary in order to select effective control measures, whether cultural or chemical. Further assistance with weed identification is available from any Clemson Extension office.

Annual Bluegrass

Life Cycle & Description: Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a winter annual weed that emerges in early fall, persists through the winter, produces seed in early spring and then dies in late spring or early summer. Annual bluegrass reproduces by seed.

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a cool weather annual grass weed that produces seed heads in the early spring.
Joey Williamson, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Annual bluegrass prefers shady, moist sites and invades weak, thin lawn areas, especially low spots and flower beds where standing water occurs. It mainly germinates in late summer through early fall when nighttime air temperatures drop to the mid-70s. This usually occurs from September 15 to October 1 in the Coastal Plain and Sandhills areas, and September 1 to 15 in the Piedmont and Mountain areas. Further germination occurs in early winter with warm days and cold nights.

Annual bluegrass produces a white-colored, pyramid-shaped seedhead in the spring. It dies in the summer with the onset of high temperatures and/or dry conditions.

Annual bluegrass has smooth, apple-green leaves with two clear lines, one on each side of the midrib that run down the length of the leaf blade. The edges of the leaf tip curve inward like the front of a boat.

Control: Handpulling is a simple, practical approach for small areas. Improve the health and density of the lawn by fertilizing at the right time and with the correct amount; maintaining an appropriate soil pH; mowing at the recommended height; and watering properly. Apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to ornamental bed areas to suppress germinating weed seeds. Finally, improve surface drainage. Preemergence herbicides are available depending on the kind of turfgrass and ornamental plants grown. Apply preemergence herbicides to established lawns before the annual bluegrass seeds germinate. Once annual bluegrass emerges, preemergence herbicides are generally ineffective.

Selective postemergence herbicides are available for annual bluegrass control. These are best applied in November or early December when the weed is small, thus most susceptible to control. See Tables 1 & 2 for pre-emergence and post-emergence control. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label.

Crabgrass & Goosegrass

Life Cycle & Description: Crabgrasses (Digitaria species) are summer annuals that germinate in the spring at about the time crabapple and forsythia bloom, when the air temperature is warm enough to promote crabgrass seed germination. They produce seed from midsummer to fall and are then killed by the first freeze in autumn. Crabgrass reproduces by seed.

Crabgrass can be identified by its tufted or prostrate growth habit, hairy stems, broad leaves and flower spikes with two to nine finger-like branches. This weed appears in disturbed areas, weak or thin turf areas and in edges of the lawn next to sidewalks and drives.

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is a tough, clump-forming summer annual with white to silver coloring near its base. Unlike crabgrass, goosegrass has flat stems and does not root at the lower nodes. It germinates a few weeks after crabgrass in late spring and produces seed from summer to early fall. The flowers and seeds are produced in two rows like a zipper on two to 13 finger-like branches at the top of the stem. Goosegrass is killed at the first freeze, and reproduces entirely from seed.

Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) can be identified by the white to silver color near the base of the grass clump.
Joey Williamson, ©2015 HGIC, Clemson Extension

Control: Handpulling is a simple, practical approach for small areas. Improve the health and density of the lawn by fertilizing at the right time and with the correct amount; reducing soil compaction; maintaining an appropriate soil pH; mowing at the recommended height; and watering properly. Apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to ornamental bed areas to suppress germinating weed seeds.

Preemergence and postemergence herbicides are available depending on the kind of turfgrass in your lawn. Preemergence herbicides provide about 2 to 2 1/4 months of control. Repeat applications would be required 60 days later for season-long control. Apply preemergence herbicides March 1 from the Coastal Plain to the Sandhills regions, and March 15 to 30 in the Piedmont and Mountain areas. Fall-seeded turfgrasses should not be treated with a preemergence herbicide until the following spring. See Tables 1 & 2 for pre-emergence and post-emergence control. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label.

Sandbur

Life Cycle & Description: Southern sandbur, or sandspur (Cenchrus eschinatus), and field or coast sandspur (Cenchrus incertus) are summer annuals that germinate in the spring, grow during the summer and early fall and die with the first heavy frost. The name “sandspur” describes the sandpapery feel of their leaves and the spurs or burs that are produced from July until the first frost. Both reproduce by seeds. Sandspur tends to be more of a problem on sandy soils from the Coastal Plain westward to the Sandhills.

Control: Handpulling with gloved hands is a simple, practical approach to control sandspur in small areas. Improve the health and density of the lawn by fertilizing at the right time and with the correct amount; maintaining an appropriate soil pH; mowing at the recommended height; and watering properly. Apply a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch to ornamental bed areas to suppress germinating weed seeds.

This annual weed can be controlled with a preemergence herbicide applied in early spring (March 1 in the Coastal areas to March 15 in Piedmont areas). Repeat in 60 days. Select an herbicide that can be safely used on your lawn.

See Tables 1 & 2 for pre-emergence and post-emergence control. Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label.

Table 1. Pre-emergence Herbicides to Prevent Grassy Weeds in Residential Lawns.

Weeds Prevented Active Ingredients Examples of Brands & Products
Annual grass weeds including crabgrass & annual bluegrass benefin Pennington
Crabgrass
Preventer
Same as for benefin, plus goosegrass oryzalin Southern Ag Surflan A.S. (40.4%)
Same as above benefin + oryzalin Helena XL2G (1% & 1%)
UPI Surflan [email protected] (1% & 1%)
Green Light Amaze Grass & Weed Preventer (1% & 1%)
Summer annual grasses, annual bluegrass, some selected annual broadleaf weeds benefin + trifluralin Anderson Turf Products 2% Team Herbicide DG (1.33% &0.67%)
Hi-Yield Crabgrass Control
Same as for benefin, plus oxalis & speedwell pendimethalin Anderson Turf Products 1.71% Pendimethal in DG
Scotts Halts Crabgrass & Grassy Weed
Preventer (1.71%)
Harrell’s 0-0-10 with 0.86% Pendimethalin
Same as for benefin, plus oxalis dithiopyr Anderson Turf Products 0.25% Pendimethal in DG
Bonide Crabgrass & Weed Preventer for Lawns & Ornamental Beds (0.27%)
Hi Yield Turf & Ornamental Weed & Grass Stopper Containing Dimension (0.125%)
StaGreen CrabEx Crabgrass & Weed Preventer (0.25%)
summer annual grasses, annual bluegrass, some selected weeds such as chickweed, spurge, goosegrass prodiamine Helena Pro-Mate Barricade & Fertilizer 0-0-7 (available with 0.22, 0.375, or 0.435%)
Howard Johnson Crabgrass Control with Prodiamine & 0-0-7 (0.86%)
Lebanon Pro Fertilizer (0-0-7) with Prodiamine (0.38% or 0.43%)
Lesco Stonewall Plus Fertilizer (0-0-7) (available with 0.20, 0.29, 0.37, or 0.43%)
Lesco Barricade Plus Fertilizer 0-0-7 (0.43%)
Scotts Halts Pro 0-0-7 & Halts Pro (0.28%)
Harrell’s 0-0-7 with 0.21% Barricade
Harrell’s 0-0-7 with 0.30% Barricade
Harrell’s 0-0-7 with 0.45% Barricade
Southern States Pro Turf 0-0-7 with 0.38% Barricade

Table 2. Post-emergence Herbicides to Control Existing Grassy Weeds in Residential Lawns.

Weeds Controlled Active Ingredients Examples of Brands & Products
annual & perennial grasses, such as crabgrass, foxtails, goosegrass, sandbur; bermudagrass suppression fenoxaprop
(for fescue lawns only)
Aventis Acclaim Extra
Bayer Advanced Crabgrass Concentrate (6.59%) Killer for Lawns RTS (0.41%)
annual & perennial grasses control. Excellent control of crabgrass; good control of bermudagrass, sandspur, bahiagrass & goosegrass sethoxydim
(for centipedegrass lawns only)
Arrest (by Whitehall Institute) (13%)
Segment (by BASF) (13%)
Excellent control of crabgrass; fair control of dallisgrass, foxtails, & signalgrass. Also, most broadleaf weeds, such as dollarweed, black medic, wild onion & garlic, speedwells, plantains, dandelion, white clover, violets, henbit, chickweed, star of Bethlehem quinclorac + 2,4-D + dicamba (for fescue, zoysiagrass, & bermudagrass 1 ) Bayer Advanced All-in-One Lawn Weed & Crabgrass Killer Concentrate
Bonide Weed Beater Plus Crabgrass & Broadleaf Weed Killer RTS
Ferti-lome Weed Out with Crabgrass Control RTS
Monterey Crab-E-Rad Plus RTS
Ortho Weed B Gon Max Plus Crabgrass
Control RTS
Excellent control of crabgrass; fair control of dallisgrass, foxtails, & signalgrass. Also most broadleaf weeds, such as dollarweed, black medic, speedwells, plantains, dandelion, white clover, violets, henbit, chickweed, star of Bethlehem, & nutsedges. quinclorac + 2,4-D +
dicamba + sulfentrazone
(for fescue, zoysiagrass & bermudagrass 1 )
Spectracide Weed Stop for Lawns Plus
Crabgrass Killer RTS
Excellent control of crabgrass; fair control of dallisgrass, foxtails, & signalgrass; Also, some broadleaf weeds, such as dollarweed, black medic, violets, speedwells, dandelion, white clover, nutsedges, chickweed, star of Bethlehem, & henbit. quinclorac + sulfentrazone
(for fescue, zoysiagrass & bermudagrass 1 )
Image Kills Crabgrass – Water Dissolving Granules
Very good control of annual bluegrass; fair control of crabgrass, sandspur, bahiagrass, fescue, & bermudagrass; poor control of goosegrass, & dallisgrass. Also many broadleaf weeds. atrazine (for St. Augustinegrass & centipedegrass) Hi-Yield Atrazine Weed Killer (4.0%) Concentrate
Southern Ag Atrazine St. Augustine Weed Killer (4.0%) Concentrate
Image Herbicide for St. Augustine &
Centipede with Atrazine RTS (4.0%)
Annual & perennial grass control, including bermudagrass, crabgrass, foxtail, goosegrass, torpedograss, johnsongrass fluazifop-
P-butyl (for Tall Fescue & Zoysiagrass
Gordon’s Ornamec 170 Grass Herbicide (1.7%)
1 Products containing quinclorac may cause temporary yellowing or discoloration of bermudagrass.

Pesticides are updated annually. Last updates were done on 7/22 by Barbara Smith.

Originally published 09/99

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.

Author(s)

Robert F. Polomski, PhD, Associate Extension Specialist, Clemson University
Bert McCarty, PhD, Turf Specialist, Clemson University

This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.

Ultimate Weed Identification Guide – With Pictures and Recommendations on How to Kill Them

Sometimes referred to as Poa annua, this annual bright green grass will pop up in your lawn in the cool months, but may not be very noticeable until early spring. This grass will grow in clumps and can be identified by its smooth leaf. The end of the leave will have a boat-like appearance. Although it can bloom in the winter, spring months are when the fuzzy white seed heads begin to appear. Moist soils are more favorable for annual bluegrass growth. In areas with extensive infestations, bare spots may be left behind after control. It is important to reestablish sod in these areas to prevent establishment of more weeds.

See also  Ph For Germinating Weed Seeds

How to Kill Annual Bluegrass

Since annual bluegrass spreads and grows each year from seed, it is important to control before it is given an opportunity to flower. Apply atrazine (Southern Ag Atrazine Weed Killer for St Augustine Grass) is in November and then repeat in early January. This product is safe for centipede grass, St. Augustine grass, zoysia grass and dormant bermuda.

Broadleaf Plantain

First up in our weed identification guide is broadleaf plantain. This broadleaf perennial weed can be identified by its oval leaves growing erect in rosette, or flower-like arrangement. In addition, flower spikes will grow outward from the rosette. These rosettes have seeds that attach unknowing passersby. Broadleaf plantain favors dry, compacted soils and will sprout from dropped seeds or regenerate from taproot.

How to Kill Broadleaf Plantain

Post emergent control can be obtained by Tenacity Herbicide in bermuda, tall fescue, kentucky bluegrass and zoysia and 2,4-D in centipede.

Chamberbitter Weeds

This lawn weed is a summer annual that grows beginning in the early summer. Subsequently, by mid-summer you can easily identify it. Resembling tiny mimosa tree sprouts, other names include “little mimosa” and “gripeweed”. Chamberbitter will have multiple branches. Furthermore, small leaflets on opposite side and across from each other will line the entire branch. Additionally, small ball-like seeds will develop on the underside of the branches. In conclusion, chamberbitter an annual.

How to Kill Chamberbitter

This means it’s best to control Chamberbitter in the early summer before it has begun to seed. Use an Atrazine Weed Killer as a preemergent in centipede and st. augustine lawns. Gallery 75 DF can also be used in centipede and st. augustine, as well as tall fescue, bermuda, and zoysia.

If Chamberbitter has already sprouted, use trimec on small plants in tall fescue, bermuda and zoysia lawns. Likewise, for st. augustine and centipede, Atrazine Weed Killer can be used as a post emergent. However, after it seeds, homeowners waste time and money trying to treat it since it dies shortly after.

Clovers

There are numerous species of clovers that may find their way into your lawn. These weeds will begin by seeds and then spread through seeds and rhizomes. Easily identified by their trifoliate (three leaves) low growth pattern. Leave will also likely have a light white triangle on the leaves. Flowers will grow in clusters and may be white or pink. This family of plants will grow in the spring, summer and fall, but is most noticeable when it flowers. Able to fix its own nitrogen, it can be helpful to your lawn in small amounts, but too much can result in a patchy lawn. Therefore, the best avenue is to control clover as soon as it is noticed.

How to Kill Clover in Your Lawn

In centipede grass or fescue with heavy infestations, it is best to use what the pros use. Tenacity is an excellent choice for a weed killer. Fertilome Weed Free Zone is a combination of weed killers and is safe for bermuda grass, St. Augustine grass, centipede grass and zoysia grass in the winter.

Common Chickweed

Chickweed is a winter annual that begins to sprout in the fall. It can easily establish in thin turf areas or dormant lawns. Chickweed will grow throughout the winter and begin seeding in the springsummer before dying. This plant can form dense mats of tiny egg-shaped leaves arranged in pairs opposite on the stem. The stem has a single line of hairs running along the leaf stem and main stem. Flowers form on the end of the stem and have five white petals.

How to Kill Chickweed

Gallery 75 DF can be used in centipede and St. Augustine, as well as tall fescue, bermuda, and zoysia lawns as a preemergent. Your best bet to control of established chickweed is with the weed killer Southern Ag Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec. It’s safe for St. Augustine, centipede, bermuda, zoysia and tall fescue lawns.

Common Lespedeza Weeds

This extremely common summer weed has three, oblong leaflets with smooth edges. These leaflets also have distinctive, parallel veins that connect into a midvein. If you let this weed hang around in your yard too long, the stem becomes woody. Common lespedeza has pink to purplish flowers. Common lespendeza is a legume Therefore, its seeds are produced in a bean pod.

How to Kill Common Lespedeza

Your best bet to control lespedeza is in the early spring with the weed killer Southern Ag Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec. It’s safe for St. Augustine, centipede, bermuda, zoysia and tall fescue lawns.

Crabgrass

No weed identification guide would be complete without crabgrass! Crabgrass is a summer weed that sticks out in your lawns like hives from a bad shellfish allergy. This large, wide bladed grass has smooth edges and crinkled at the base. Hairs are also common where the leaves connect. Seed heads grow throughout the summer and has six long spikes.

How to Kill Crabgrass

In fescue, zoysia and bermuda lawns we recommend controlling crabgrass after it has begun to develop with Ferti-Lome Weed Out with Crabgrass Killer RTS. In centipede lawns use Arrest for best control and Southern Ag Atrazine for fair control in St. Augustine lawns.

Dandelion

I’m sure you have childhood memories of blowing on the puffy seedheads of dandelions. However, now that it is growing in your lawn you feel different. This perennial is easily identifiable by its seed head and yellow flower. However, recognizing it before it blooms can give you the upper hand on control. Leaves are notched and resemble spearpoints in a rosette pattern. When the leaves or stem is broken, a milky white sap will flow. Dandelions can regenerate from their taproot every year.

How to Kill Dandelion

Post emergent control can be obtained by Tenacity in bermuda, tall fescue, kentucky bluegrass and zoysia and 2,4-D in centipede.

Florida Betony

Florida betony is a winter perennial in the mint family. This plant’s roots, or tubers, resemble the rattles on a rattlesnake, hence another frequently used name is rattlesnake weed. These tubers are edible and can provide a nice crisp crunch to your salad. Other distinguishing characteristics include a square stem and leaves on opposite sides of the stem from each other. Pink to light purplish flowers will emerge in the spring.

How to Kill Florida Betony

The opportune growing time for Florida betony is in the spring and mid to late fall. Therefore, this is the best time to kill this weed, with fall the most effective. It is important to use a weed killer that will move throughout the plant and kill the tubers as well. For centipede grass, St. Augustine grass, zoysia grass and dormant bermuda, Southern Ag Atrazine Weed Killer for St Augustine Grass is recommended. Apply this product in mid to late October and then repeat in mid to late February.

Florida Pusley

Even in the dry-dog days of summer, Florida pusley grows strong. This plant is extremely drought-tolerant. When your lawn is stressed and begins turning brown, this could be the only thing still growing. This summer annual grows outwards, or prostrate, instead of upwards. If not controlled, it can form a dense blanket infestation. Leaves grow on opposite sides of a hairy stem. Small star-like flowers cluster at the end of the stems.

How to Kill Florida Pusley

Mowing frequently can prevent florida pusley from seeding, but it will not rid your yard of it. If caught early enough, Pendimethalin granules can be used as a preemergent. After established, 2,4-D in centipede and Carfentrazone (Quicksilver) in centipede, kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, st. augustine and zoysia.

Ground ivy (creeping charlie)

This perennial herb, unless killed, will sprout year after year from its extensive root system. Ground ivy will likely pop up in areas of thin turf, in damp-shady areas. A cousin to mint, this plant has square stems and leaves opposite of each other. Leaves are rounded to kidney-shaped. Leaf edges have a rounded tooth appearance. Flowers are a violet-purple color.

How to Kill Ground Ivy

Your best bet to control ground ivy is in the early spring with the weed killer Southern Ag Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec. It’s safe for St. Augustine, centipede, bermuda, zoysia and tall fescue lawns.

Hairy bittercress

Hairy bittercress is an annual that will germinate from seed in the fall. Favoring shady and lawns that are mowed too short, this weed will grow throughout the winter before flowering in the spring. Initial leaves of hairy bittercress will be heart-shaped and remain close to the ground during winter. Spring will encourage upward growth with pairs of kidney-shaped leaves. White flowers will form before transitioning to long, wiry seed pods. Once these seed pods rupture, they are capable of shooting seeds up to 16ft from the plant.

How to Kill Hairy Bittercress

Ferti-Lome Broadleaf Weed Control with Gallery is a great pre-emergent that is effective on a variety of broadleaf weeds, particularly hairy bittercress. Apply this granular weed killer in late winter in Tall fescue, bermuda, St. Augustine, centipede, zoysia, and bahia lawns. For already established bittercress, treat with Fertilome Weed-Out Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec in bermuda, bent, zoysia, fescue, St. Augustine, and centipede lawns.

Henbit

Henbit has rounded-toothed leaves that encircle half of a square stem. Paired with another leaf on the opposite side, the leaves appear to fully wrap around the stem. With a similar appearance to ground ivy, henbit grows erect (up to 16” high) instead of staying low to the ground. Furthermore, flowers of henbit are vase-shaped and purple. Also, each flower has reddish spots on the petal tips. This annual will begin growing in the fall of areas of bare or thin turf. Henbit will continue to grow during warm periods of winter months before flowering in the spring.

How to Kill Henbit

Henbit cannot be controlled by mowing. Gallery can be used in centipede and St. Augustine, as well as tall fescue, bermuda, and zoysia lawns as a preemergent. Your best bet to control of established henbit is with the weed killer Southern Ag Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec. It’s safe for St. Augustine, centipede, bermuda, zoysia and tall fescue lawns.

Lawn Burweed

If you ever asked as a child “Are there any stickers?” before you walked across the grass, you were likely talking about lawn burweed. This annual has many names, stickerweed, sandspur, and spurweed. It is a pain in your feet as a child and is a pain in your @$ as an adult. Lawn burweed begins growing in the fall continues slowly growing throughout the winter. Leaves and stems are hairy and slightly resemble cross between parsley and rosemary. In the spring, burweed begins a rapid growth and develops the spiked seeds that plagued bare feet across the country.

See also  Seeded Weed

How to Kill Lawn Burweed

Gallery 75 DF can be used in centipede and St. Augustine, as well as tall fescue, bermuda, and zoysia lawns as a preemergent in the early fall. You’re wasting time and money trying to apply a post-emergent in the spring. Post-emergent burweed control in St. Augustine, centipede, bermuda, zoysia and tall fescue, the best produce is Southern Ag Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec.

Nutsedge

Resembling a grass, nutsedge (yellow and purple), often grows faster than your centipede grass. The easiest way to identify nutsedge is by pulling up a plant and looking for the tubers or nutlets. Another distinguishing characteristic of sedges is their triangle shaped stem, which differs from the hollow ones of grasses.

How to Kill Nutsedge

Since sedges aren’t grasses, standard grass weed killers will not kill it. The best weed killer for nutsedge is SedgeHammer. With a name like that, how can you go wrong? When applied according to the label, this product is safe on bermuda, centipede, tall fescue, St. Augustine and zoysia lawns.

Old World Diamond Flower

Old World Diamond Flower is a summer weed with smooth, oblong-pointed leaves that are arranged opposite of each other on the stem. The dainty, white flowers have a long stalk that connects multiple flowers to the weed stem.

How to Kill Old World Diamond Flower

This weed can be difficult to control. There are no pre-emergent option available. Products like QuickSilver with carfentrazone can be an effective post emergent weed killer when used at the appropriate time. Safe for bermuda, St. Augustine, centipede and zoysia yards, however check the label for best application times.

Purple Deadnettle

Deadnettle is a winter annual that you may not notice until it begins to bloom early spring. However, it’s best to identify and control it during the winter while it is actively growing. If you wait until it flowers, you run the risk of seeds falling into your yard to give problems in future years. This weed is in the mint family, therefore has square stems and leaves opposite on the stem. The leaves are triangle shaped and bunched at the top. This makes the plant appear to be top heavy. Upper leaves will also have a hint of purple coloration overlaying the base green.

Deadnettle can be controlled after it begins to grow with the weed killer Fertilome Weed Free Zone. This product is a combination of weed killers and is safe for centipede grass, bermuda grass, St. Augustine grass and zoysia grass in the winter. In centipede grass with heavy infestations or history of deadnettle, it is best to use what the pros use. Tenacity can be applied before the deadnettle has appeared or after and will knock it out.

Purslane

Purslane is summer annual that grows between May and August. If left unmanaged, this weed grows in mats along the ground. This lateral growth pattern, instead of erect, is identified as prostrate and exhibited by several nuisance lawn weeds. Purslane can be distinguished by its succulent, or thick and fleshly, leaves and stems. Leaves are light green. Likewise, stems can vary from light green to maroon on older weeds and on its underside areas. Purslane has yellow flowers with 5-petals.

How to Kill Purslane

Prevention is the key by having a dense, healthy lawn. However, if purslane develops, it can be hand-pulled or treated with a weed killer. Preemergent weed killers include Gallery 75 DF in centipede and st. augustine, tall fescue, bermuda and zoysia yards. Simazine can be used in centipede lawns. Post emergent control can be obtained by Tenacity Herbicide in bermuda, tall fescue, kentucky bluegrass and zoysia and 2,4-D in centipede.

Spurge

You’ve likely seen this fast growing weed growing between the cracking in the sidewalk or parts of your lawn where there isn’t much grass. Spurge has a reddish brown stem and dark green leaves that are arranged opposite of each other on the stem. The most identifiable characteristic of this plant is the potentially irritating milky white sap that seeps out of broken leaves. This annual has a tendency to grow throughout the summer. If you let this one hang in your lawn long enough, a small white flower will show up on the end of the stems.

How to Kill Spurge

You are not going to be able to mow spurge out of your lawn. Gallery 75 DF can be used in centipede and St. Augustine, as well as tall fescue, bermuda, and zoysia lawns as a preemergent in the early Spring. Post emergent control can be obtained by Tenacity in bermuda, tall fescue, kentucky bluegrass and zoysia and 2,4-D in centipede.

Virginia Buttonweed

This weed is often mistaken as a grass. However, if not treated and killed at the root, this perennial weed will plague lawns year after year. The leaves are a darker green on the top and connected directly to a slightly hairy stem. Virginia buttonweed flowers have white, star-shaped flowers with reddish-pink stripes. It is extremely hearty and cannot be mowed out of your lawn.

How to Kill Virginia Buttonweed

Virginia buttonweed is a perennial weed, meaning that it can regenerate from the roots in subsequent years. This means it will likely take multiple treatments to control. Apply Fertilome Weed Free Zone in the spring as it is beginning to grow.

Reminder This weed identification guide is constantly being added to. Check back often. × Dismiss alert

Wild Violets

This perennial will show up year after year in your yard and is one of the hardest to control. Early identification and maintenance is key to eliminating wild violets from your lawn. Most likely found in wet, shady areas of the yard, wild violet will spread quickly through an extensive rhizome system. There are numerous species of wild violets and flower colors can range from white, blue, purple and violet. However, the leaves of this family of plants will be heart-shaped and cupped to form a funnel-like appearance.

How to Kill Wild Violets

Wild violets are best controlled in the fall. Avoid hot dry times and begin your treatments after temperatures have dropped. Unfortunately, there is no effective weed killer that will eliminate wild violet before it grows. Also, be prepared to make multiple treatments to rid your yard of this nuisance weed. In dormant bermuda grass and zoysia grass, use TZone SE. In centipede grass, use Tenacity. Don’t be shell-shocked with the price of either of these, nothing cheap is going to kill wild violets.

33 Lawn and Garden Weeds: How to Identify and Control Them

Andrea Beck spent more than three years writing about food for Better Homes & Gardens before serving as the assistant digital garden editor. Now, she writes about lifestyle topics, including food, garden, home, and health for Hy-Vee’s Seasons magazine. Her work has appeared on Food & Wine, Martha Stewart, MyRecipes, and more. Andrea holds a double degree in magazines and English, with a minor in politics from Drake University.

Don’t let these pesky plants crash your garden party! The first step is to know your enemy. Then you’ll know the best way to deal with your weed problem.

What Is a Weed, Anyway?

A weed can be any plant growing where you don’t want it to. However, there are some particularly weedy species to keep an eye out for. These aggressive plants not only make your yard look messy, they can also choke out the garden plants you’ve worked so hard to grow. Whether you’re trying to identify lawn weeds or garden weeds, this handy guide will help you identify more than 30 common weeds by photo, plus give you tips for how to best remove them.

Dandelion

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 12 inches tall, 6-16 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawns and gardens in sun or shade

Appearance: This common lawn weed has a long taproot with deeply notched leaves. Yellow flowers mature into puffballs. Dandelion seeds are like parachutes that fly away in the wind, helping them invade new spaces in lawns and garden beds.

Weed Control Tips: Mulch to prevent dandelions in gardens. Pull dandelion weeds by hand or treat lawns with a broadleaf herbicide, which won’t kill grass.

Oxalis

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 20 inches tall

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape, lawn or garden areas

Appearance: This garden weed has light green leaves that look somewhat like clovers and cup-shape yellow flowers in summer and fall.

Weed Control Tips: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent weeds. Pull oxalis weeds by hand or spray weeds with a broadleaf herbicide in spring or fall.

Crabgrass

Type: Grassy annual

Size: Up to 18 inches tall and 20 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Crabgrass is exactly what it sounds like: A grassy weed. This lawn weed grows roots anywhere the stem makes soil contact. Seed heads spread out like four fingers.

Control: Use a pre-emergence weed preventer to prevent seeds from sprouting, pull crabgrass by hand, or spot-treat with a nonselective herbicide if growing in sidewalk cracks or other places where nothing else is growing.

Bindweed

Bindweed is known for choking out native species, and it can be extremely difficult to eliminate from your yard. Marty Baldwin

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Climbs to 6 feet or more

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its arrowhead-shape leaves on twining vines. Bindweed also produces white to pale pink morning glory-type flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent bindweed. Repeatedly pull or cut down growing bindweed plants and/or spot treat with a nonselective herbicide designed to kill roots, not just above-ground growth.

White Clover

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 8-10 inches tall, 12 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas in sun to partial shade

Appearance: White clover has three-lobe leaves and round white flower clusters. The plants quickly spread outward to form dense mats of foliage.

Control: Mulch your garden beds to prevent white clover in landscape areas. Use an iron-based herbicide to get rid of clover growing in lawns or dig out the weeds in garden beds.

Test Garden Tip: Clover adds nitrogen to the soil plus the flowers feed many pollinators so some gardeners use this plant to create a more environmentally friendly lawn.

Nutsedge

Type: Grass-like perennial

Size: 2 feet tall, 1 foot wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, or garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Nutsedge has slender, grassy leaves, triangular stems, and small, nutlike tubers on the root system. When these weeds pop up in lawns, they often grow faster than turf grass, so they are easy to spot.

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to help prevent nutsedge. Plants are easy to pull up by hand, but it will take repeated weeding to get rid of an infestation. Various herbicides are labeled for use on nutsedge in lawns but it is important to use the right one for the type of turf grass you have to avoid damaging it.

See also  Strongest Weed Seeds

Creeping Charlie

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 4 inches tall, several feet wide

Where It Grows: Shady lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Identify this lawn weed and groundcover by its scalloped leaves, creeping stems, and clusters of purple flowers in late spring.

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent creeping charlie. Pull plants by hand or spray with a postemergence herbicide in spring or fall.

Lamb’s-Quarter

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 4 feet tall and 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Lamb’s-quarters has scalloped, triangular leaves with gray undersides.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent lamb’s-quarter. Pull weed plants by hand or use a postemergence herbicide.

Plantain

Plantain weeds like hard, densely packed soil; loosen it with a hoe before trying to pull them out. Denny Schrock

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 8 inches tall and 12 inches wide

Where It Grows: Moist lawn and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: When you’re identifying weeds in your garden, if you spot broad, flat, oval-shape leaves arranged in a low rosette, you’ve likely found a Plantain.

Control: Mulch to prevent plantains growing in the garden. Pull these weeds by hand or use a postemergence herbicide in lawns.

Dayflower

Type: Annual grass relative

Size: Up to 30 inches tall and wide

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape areas

Appearance: Dayflowers have dark green leaves sprouting from a stem and brilliant blue flowers through the summer.

Control: Mulch the garden to prevent weeds or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull weeds by hand or spot-treat with a nonselective postemergence herbicide.

Purslane

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 6 inches tall and 2 feet wide

Where it grows: Dry, sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Identify this weed groundcover by its fleshy, dark green leaves and small yellow flowers at the ends of the stems.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent purslane or use a preemergence herbicide in the spring. Pull plants by hand or spot-treat with a nonselective postemergence herbicide.

Velvetleaf

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide

Where It Grows: Fertile, sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Velvetleaf gets its name because of its large, velvety heart-shape leaves up to 10 inches across. The weed blooms with yellow flowers in summer.

Weed Control: Mulch your garden to prevent velvetleaf or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull existing plants by hand or use a postemergence herbicide.

Wild Violet

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: 6 inches tall, 6 inches wide

Where It Grows: Shady lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Wild violet is a groundcover with heart-shape leaves and purple flowers in late spring.

Control: Mulch garden beds in spring to prevent wild violet. Pull weeds by hand or spray with a postemergence herbicide in spring or fall.

Test Garden Tip: This plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental in shade gardens.

Smartweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 42 inches tall and 30 inches wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Identify garden weeds like smartweed by its lance-shape leaves often marked with purple chevrons. It’s an upright plant with pink or white flowers in summer and fall.

Control: To prevent this weed, mulch garden beds in spring. Pull plants by hand or apply a postemergence herbicide once it grows.

Test Garden Tip: This weed is native to areas of North America. Unlike many exotic weeds, it supports local wildlife.

Quickweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 2 feet tall and wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Quickweed has jagged, hairy leaves and small white daisy-shape flowers in summer.

Control: Use a mulch or a preemergence herbicide in spring to prevent quickweed. If plants do grow, pull them by hand or spot-treat them with a postemergence herbicide.

Pigweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 6 feet tall, 2 feet wide

Where it grows: Sunny landscape or garden areas

Appearance: Pigweeds are tall plants with a taproot. Identify weeds by their hairy-looking clusters of green flowers (though some varieties are grown as annuals).

Control: Mulch garden areas in spring to prevent pigweed or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull weeds by hand or spray with a postemergence weed killer.

Canada Thistle

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Canada thistle has spiny, gray-green leaves, and purple flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent it in landscape areas. Use a postemergence herbicide in lawns in spring or fall, or dig the weed out by hand.

Test Garden Tip: Thistle has an extensive root system that can grow several feet out from the main plant.

Knotweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 8 inches tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny or partly shaded lawn, landscape, or garden areas

Appearance: Knotweed is an invasive groundcover with blue-green leaves sparsely appearing on long stems.

Control: Prevent knotweed with a deep layer of mulch or apply a preemergence herbicide in spring. Once the plant grows, hand-pull or spot-treat it with a nonselective weed killer.

Pokeweed

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 10 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape or garden areas

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its light green leaves, clusters of white flowers, and dark purple berries.

Control: Prevent pokeweed with a deep layer of mulch. Once the plant grows, hand-pull or spot-treat it with an herbicide.

Poison Ivy

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 15 feet tall and wide

Where It Grows: Sunny or shady landscape or garden areas

Appearance: Poison ivy can be a vine, shrub, or groundcover. The weed has leaves divided into three leaflets and can sprout clusters of green berries.

Control: Prevent poison ivy with a deep layer of mulch. If the weed starts to grow in your yard, spot-treat it with an herbicide or wrap your hand in a plastic bag, pull the plant up, roots and all, and carefully invert the plastic bag around the plant, seal, and throw away.

Test Garden Tip: The plant contains oils that cause a severe allergic skin reaction in many people when touched. These oils are present even on dead leaves and can become airborne and inhaled if the plant is burned.

Black Nightshade

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 2 feet tall, 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape or garden areas with rich soil in sun or shade

Appearance: Black nightshade can be a bushy or climbing plant with white or purple flowers and purple or red fruits.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent black nightshade. Pull the weed by hand or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Test Garden Tip: All parts of this plant are poisonous (including the fruits) if swallowed.

Black Medic

Type: Broadleaf annual or short-lived perennial

Size: 1-2 feet tall, 1 foot wide

Where It Grows: Poor, dry, soil in full sun

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its clover-type leaves and small, yellow flowers. It grows as a dense mat, thanks to its creeping stems.

Control: Mulch to prevent black medic in gardens. Pull or dig out weeds by hand or use a postemergence herbicide. Discourage it by keeping the soil well watered and amended with organic matter (such as compost).

Quackgrass

Type: Grassy perennial

Size: Up to 3 feet tall and several feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: This garden weed has wheatlike flower spikes, which appear above slender clumps of grassy foliage.

Control: Mulch your garden well to prevent quackgrass. Dig plants out by hand, being sure to remove every bit of root. Spot treat with a nonselective weed killer.

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: Dock produces large, wavy-edge leaves and large seed heads covered with brown seeds.

Control: Mulch to prevent dock. Pull and dig up plants or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Henbit

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 12 inches tall and wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas in sun or shade

Appearance: This lawn weed is a low, creeping plant with scallop-edge leaves and purple flowers.

Control: Mulch to prevent henbit in gardens or use preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull plants by hand or treat in lawns with a broadleaf, postemergence herbicide.

Fleabane

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 2 feet tall and 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun to partial shade

Appearance: Fleabane has slender leaves attached to an upright, branching stem. It produces puffy white to pale lavender daisies.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent fleabane or use a preemergence herbicide in spring. Pull plants by hand or spot-treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Nettle

Stinging nettle can resprout from rhizomes but also hurt your hands, so wear garden gloves when dealing with this weed. Denny Schrock

Type: Broadleaf perennial

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 3 feet wide

Where It Grows: Garden areas with rich, moist soil

Appearance: This garden weed has sawtooth-edge leaves and yellowish flower clusters covered with stinging hairs.

Control: Mulch to prevent nettle. Dig out weeds or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Test Garden Tip: Always wear gloves when working around this plant (the sharp hairs can irritate skin).

Prostrate Spurge

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 3 inches tall, 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, landscape, and garden areas with dry soil

Appearance: Green or purple-blushed leaves of prostrate spurge form dense mats.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent prostrate spurge or use a preemergence herbicide in lawns. Pull weeds when young or spot-treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Chickweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 6 inches tall, 12 inches wide

Where It Grows: Lawn, garden, and landscape areas with rich, moist soil in sun or shade

Appearance: This garden and lawn weed creates lush green mats studded with small, star-shape flowers.

Control: Mulch to prevent chickweed in gardens or use a preemergence herbicide in early spring. Pull weeds by hand.

Musk Thistle

Type: Broadleaf biennial

Size: Up to 6 feet tall and 18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in full sun

Appearance: Musk thistle has prickly leaves growing off of tall stems topped by heavy two inch purple flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent musk thistle. Use a postemergence herbicide or dig the weed out by hand.

Ragweed

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: Up to 4 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas in sun or partial shade

Appearance: Ragweed has finely cut green leaves that are almost fern-like.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent ragweed. Use a postemergence herbicide or pull it out by hand.

Yellow Sweet Clover

Type: Broadleaf annual

Size: 1-3 feet tall, 12-18 inches wide

Where It Grows: Landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Identify this garden weed by its lanky branches, clover-like leaves, and fragrant yellow flowers.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent yellow sweet clover. Pull plants by hand or spot-treat with a postemergence herbicide.

Yellow Salsify

Type: Broadleaf biennial or short-lived perennial

Size: Up to 3 feet tall and 2 feet wide

Where It Grows: Sunny landscape and garden areas

Appearance: Spot yellow salsify by its gray-green leaves. Yellow flowers on the plant are followed by large puffballs of seeds.

Control: Mulch your garden to prevent yellow salsify. Pull plants by hand or treat with a postemergence herbicide.

How useful was this post?

Click on a star to rate it!

Average rating 3 / 5. Vote count: 1

No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post.